Editor’s Choice – Volume 19 No 1

Although the neuroinflammatory response in the central nervous system is initiated to exert protective effects, it may also exert detrimental effects and widespread inflammation through the blood–brain barrier. In addition, microglia has gradually emerged as a key interface between stress-related signals and neuroimmune consequences of stress, with stressors leading to elevated microglial activity.
In psychiatric diseases such as mood disorders or schizophrenia, the inflammatory response system is activated. This important topic is reviewed by Norbert Müller in this issue. Accordingly, during the last decade, anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches have been studied in schizophrenia and depression.
Terrence Deak and colleagues have brought together, in their review, findings from multiple species in order to better understand how the mechanisms of the neuroimmune response to stress contribute to stress-related psychopathologies, such as major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
Finally, Katya and David Rubinow propose a new paradigm for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease including diabetes mellitus and depressive disorders. A clear distinction between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes readily disappears when individual mediators and contextual variables are more closely examined.